State – bodily cues inside of us, e. Used to rehearse and store verbal information from the phonological store. A strength of the study is it’s easy to replicate i. An additional component was added called the episodic buffer. Lieberman criticizes the working memory model as the visuospatial sketchpad VSS implies that all spatial information was first visual they are linked. The verbal reasoning task made use of the central executive and the digit span task made use of the phonological loop. Recall from a Changed Perspective Trying to mentally recreate the situation from different points of view e.

Information passes from store to store in a linear way. However, instead of all information going into one single store, there are different systems for different types of information. A number of experiments have indicated the importance of context-based i. Download the revision notes as a PDF. KF suffered brain damage from a motorcycle accident that damaged his short-term memory.

When attention is paid to something in the environment it is then converted to short-term memory. If a weapon is used to threaten a victim, their attention is likely to focus on it. A digit span task which required them to repeat a list of numbers, and a verbal reasoning task which required them to answer true or false to various questions e. Importantly they may be less experienced drivers and therefore less confident in their ability to estimate speeds.

The control group were not given the second list. For example, research has shown that using a combination of ‘report everything’ and ‘context reinstatement’ produced better recall than any of the conditions individually. The interviewer encourages the witness to report all details about the event, even though these details may seem unimportant.


If two tasks make use of the same component of working memorythey cannot be performed successfully together. Words early on in the list were put into long term memory primacy effect because the person has time to rehearse the word, and words from the end went into short term memory recency effect.

kf case study shallice and warrington

It consists of two parts see Figure 3. See the picture below for clarification.

Features of the model: A further problem with the study was the use of students as participants. A final recommended resource is this cas with Brenda Milner. However, their procedural memory appears to be largely unaffected.

They can recall skills they have already learned e. Casd and Palmer investigated how misleading information could distort eyewitness testimony accounts. Working memory is supported by dual task studies.

Patient KF by erfasdf esfds on Prezi

Retrieval failure is where information is available in long term memory but cannot be recalled because of the absence of appropriate cues. Visuospatial Sketchpad inner eye. For example, many people say they can’t remember much about their childhood or their school days.

Write at least half cass page of analysis.

Working Memory

Localisation of function Neurotransmission Hormones Environment on physiology Cognition and Physiology Brain Imaging technologies Genetics and behaviour Evolutionary Explanations Ethics of genetic research.


For example, two activities sometimes come into conflict, such as driving a car and talking. The study also showed that stress levels did not have an effect on memory, contrary to lab findings. The marking criteria are below.

A-level Psychology Memory Revision for Paper 1 | Simply Psychology

This is because the method was a laboratory experiment which followed a standardised procedure. The working memory model does not explain changes in processing ability that occur as the result of practice or time. One difficulty which can arise in talking about H. We will look at some of the details from the video below in the next section, but it is also relevant to what we have covered here. More courses of Psychology – Pearson. The VSS is a temporary memory system for holding visual and spatial information.

Organisation – Recall is improved if the organisation gives a structure which provides triggers, eg categories. Evidence indicates that retrieval is more likely when the context at encoding matches the context at retrieval.

kf case study shallice and warrington

Read back through the details of the studies above, and then answer the following question from memory:

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