Students are aware of the essay that they will have to write throughout the test. Do these same criticisms emerge from studies of choice within the realm of language testing? A number of sample essays are provided for each version of the test and are used in the training of raters and at the time of scoring. Given the pattern of choices made by the test-takers and the resulting cell sizes, the results which relate to the first research ques- tion can now be presented. The present study represents an important contribution to dis- cussions of the use of choice in language testing because it is designed in a manner that allows for the investigation of the effect of choice without the interference of a task effect.
Test-takers are given 5 minutes following the lecture to review their answers and add any information they may have missed. Because choice is an essential element of the research design, the second focus of the study is to explore the advantages and disadvan- tages of the use of choice in language-testing settings from the per- spective of both the tester and the test-taker. Help Center Find new research papers in: Through this design the researchers could com- pare the performance of the test-takers on tasks which the test-takers had previously defined as high or low preference. Modern Language Journal 75, 39—
In this study we might not expect the same sort of attenuation of the potential effect of topic choice as was suggested for the studies in which the sesay was given a choice from only two topics.
Some test-takers commented directly on the issue of choice. The second sentence was a one-line summary of the specific topic of the test. Contents Overview Reading Skills: Remember me on this computer.
In the instructions it is suggested that they write at least one page of text. Intrinsic motivation and self determi- nation in human behavior.
Personnel Psychology 44, 51— The fully proficient category identifies students who are not required to take ESL courses and may begin a full program of studies at the university. Table 1 presents the frequencies observed for country of origin, first language, and program of study for the full sample.
On the relative value of multiple-choice, constructed response, and examine-selected items on two achievement tests. The use of random assignment of the test takers to the choice and no-choice conditions means that these two groups of test-takers can Downloaded from http: It was the most frequently chosen factor for both the choice and the no-choice groups. The median value for the length of time that these test-takers had been in Canada was 18 months. If there is consensus in the three marks the raters go on Downloaded from http: The mean for the choice group was 4.
One possible solution to this problem is to translate the two-sentence descriptions of each topic into the first language of each test-taker.
The intermediate proficiency category Downloaded from http: These test-takers were asked to read a two-sentence description of each of five topics and to indicate which test they would like to write. The results of this study have important implications for the CAEL test. We argue that these factors would be a source of construct-irrelevant vari- ance because aspects of the task that are extraneous to the construct of interest i.
Upon closer examination of the issue of power, we found a number of convincing arguments for the relative power superiority of the Mann Whitney U test and other non-parametric procedures under conditions similar to this study see for example Zimmerman and Zumbo, Essah advan- tages and disadvantages of the use of choice in language-testing set- tings are explored from the perspective of both the tester and the test-taker. For each essay task the test- taker was asked to choose one topic from a pair of essay prompts.
HeartLand | CAEL Assessment
A Chi-square analysis of essag frequencies could not be conducted because the cell sizes for the choice group were too small. The lack of significant differences obtained in this study suggests that this is not the case. On this writing test the test-taker is offered esxay choice of two prompts.
Forecasting Consequences Reading 2: Gee administered an English composition test to grade 12 students who were asked to choose one topic from among six options. The present study represents an important contribution to dis- cussions of the use of choice in language testing because it is designed in a manner that allows for the investigation of the effect of choice without the interference of a task effect.
The choice mechanism was ident- ified as an important factor in many of the studies easay choice in testing that we reviewed and it is probable that the choice mechanism has an impact on the results of our study. For the most part, each of these studies has been limited to an investigation of one ccael at most two aspects of the topic effect.
Sample Writing Test Question for the Exam with Comments
Does the pattern of choices suggest that offering a choice of topic may disadvantage some test-takers? However, the potential impact of prior knowledge would be substan- tial for topic-based tests of language proficiency because all of the items are concerned with one topic.
The asmple includes four components: